una marca de Petmulin 1165 x 1172 St A. Lib. 209 [rubric]
Malisus de Pethmolin 1165 x 1172 St A. Lib. 209 [by command of Countess Ada the queen-mother Maolìosa (Malisus) of Pitmilly in the shire of Crail (‘in syra de Karel’) is to pay from the land he holds of Ada one merk silver annually to the canons of St Andrews for the building of the new church, and for lighting it when it is built]
Petmulin 1165 x 1172 RRS ii no. 29 [= St A. Lib 226; royal confirmation of St A. Lib. 209; there is no mention of Maolìosa]
vnam carucatam terre in Petmulyn 1172 St A. Lib. 313 [William de Hay, butler (pincerna) of the king of Scotland, grants to the hospital in St Andrews ‘one carucate of land in Pitmilly which I received with my wife’ (quam cepi cum uxore mea)]
totam terram de Pethmulin 1173 x 1178 St A. Lib. 208 [rubric]
totam terram de Pethmulin 1173 x 1178 St A. Lib. 208 [all the land of Pitmilly held by Maolìosa (Malisius) given by Ada de Warenne to St Andrews Priory and its hospital]
totam terram de Pethmulin 1173 x 1178 RRS ii no. 170 [= St A. Lib. 210, confirming Countess Ada’s grant of all Pitmilly held by Maolìosa (Malisius) to hospital of St Andrew St A. Lib. 208-9]
cum terra de Petmolin 1183 St A. Lib. 58 [general confirmation of Pope Lucius III; one of lands given to hospital of St Andrew by Countess Ada]
terra de Petmulyn c.1201 x 1205 RRS ii no. 435 [= St. Lib. 314; settlement of a dispute between St Andrews Priory on one hand and David de Hay and his mother Eva on the other anent the land of Pitmilly. This land is identified in the rubric as Falside (Fausid) KBS (RRS ii no. 435 only); see discussion below]
totam terram de Petmolyn 1264 x 1304 St A. Lib. 404–5 [‘all the land of Pitmilly’ feued to John de Monypenny by St Andrews Priory]
Petmuly 1438 St A. Lib. 430
Petmuly 1454 NLS MS Adv. 15.1.18 no. 53 [William Monipenny of Kinkell (Kynkill) SSL retoured in land of Pitmilly]
(cains of) Petmily 1471 RMS ii no. 1039 [land of Falside (Fawsyde) KBS with cains (cum canis) of Pitmilly and Feddinch CMN and of Bannafield (Bannachfelde) DNO, part of list of possessions of the church of St Andrews]
Petmowly 1516 Fife Ct. Bk. 25
Petmulye 1517 Crail Chrs. no. 24 [rent of 4 merks out of lands of Pitmilly ... between the lands of Kilduncan and Falside (Kilduncane et Fausyde) KBS on the west, the lands of Boarhills (Byrhyll) SSL on the north, the sea on the east and the lands of Kingsbarns (Kyngis Bernis) KBS on the south]
Petmwlie 1517 NLS Adv MS 34.4.6 fo 22v [printed as Crail Chrs. no. 25, which has, wrongly, Petmulie]
(William Monypenny of) Petmolye 1518 Fife Ct. Bk. 94
Petmillie c.1560 s Assumption, 177 [rent to Haddington Priory, £23 6 s. 8 d.]
kane of Potmulye 1587 Assumption, 11 [one of the cains (of 13 s. 4 d.) paid to St Andrews Priory]
the kane of Pitmyllie 1587 Assumption, 19 [one of the cains (of 13 s. 4 d.) pertaining to the abbey (sic) of St Andrews, by the laird thereof]
Pitmylie 1594 RMS vi no. 100
(James Monypenny of) Petmilly 1600 RMS vi no. 1085 [see discussion below]
Pitmillie 1633 Retours (Fife) no. 497 [Janet Ecklein, heir of Elspeth Monypenny (Monypennie), in the lands of Pitmilly with the mill]
Pittmille 1642 Gordon MS Fife
Pitt milly 1654 Blaeu (Gordon) Fife
Pitmillie 1684 Adair/East Fife
Pitmilly 1753 Roy sheet 19, 5
Pitmilly 1775 Ainslie/Fife [‘Coll. Moneypenny’; also shows Pitmilly Burnmouth]
Pitmilly 1828 SGF
G pett + G muileann
‘Mill farm, milton’. There is no trace of the definite article in the early forms of this name, in contrast to Pett in mulenn ‘estate of the mill’ of the Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer (II), which lay near Old Deer in Buchan ABD (see Jackson 1972, text and notes; see also Watson 1926, 411). There was an estate of the same name in St Andrews parish, Pitmullen. See Pitmullen SSL for the suggestion that both Pitmullen SSL and Pitmilly KBS may have received their names from a single (royal?) mill. The eponymous mill of Pitmilly is one or other of the large mills on the lower reaches of the Kenly Water, though not necessarily OS Pathf. Pitmilly Mill, which appears as Milton Mill on SGF (1828) and Crail Mill on OS 1 inch 1st edn, and (apparently) as Kingsmill on Gordon MS Fife (1642) (Kings Mill on Blaeu (Gordon) Fife (1654)). OS Name Book states that the mill had once been owned by the town of Crail (64, 40), hence the name Crail Mill.
The late twelfth- and early thirteenth-century records of Pitmilly show that already by the 1170s the lands known as Pitmilly had been divided into two substantial parts, one of which is explicitly stated to be a carucate or ploughgate. In fact the whole of Pitmilly was probably at least two carucates in extent. The evidence is somewhat complicated, and is best set out in full. The first charter anent Pitmilly to appear in St A. Lib. contains Ada de Warenne’s grant in perpetual alms to the canons of St Andrews priory and their hospital of ‘all the land of Pitmilly which Maolìosa had held’ (totam terram de Pethmulin quam Malisius tenuit), as Hugh Giffard and other ‘honest men’ (gentry) (probi homines) had perambulated it, along with common pasture on the muir’ (in mhora) (St A. Lib. 208–9). This charter is immediately followed in St A. Lib. by another charter of Ada’s which grants ‘to the canons serving God at St Andrews in Scotland’ (canonicis apud Sanctum Andream in Scocia Deo seruientibus) one merk silver annually in perpetual alms for the soul of her husband Earl Henry, of her own soul and of those of her predecessors and successors for the work on the new church, and that when that church is finished the same alms are to be given towards the lighting of the said church. The charter further stipulates that the merk silver is to be paid by Maolìosa of Pitmilly in Crailshire, from the land which he holds of Ada, and that the payment will be incumbent on all who hold that same land (St A. Lib. 209). The second of these charters must precede the first, since the first gives all the land held by Maolìosa to the canons and their hospital, a point made by G. W. S. Barrow in his note to RRS ii no. 29 (p. 140), which is the royal confirmation, dated 1165 × 1172, of Countess Ada’s grant of the silver merk from Pitmilly. No more is heard of the annual silver merk, but we can assume that it continued to be paid by the canons themselves towards the building, then the lighting, of their new church.
A charter dated 1172 shows that ‘all the land which Maolìosa held’ was not in fact all of Pitmilly. In this charter William de Hay, butler of the king of Scotland, grants to St Andrew and (his) hospital in free alms a carucate of land in Pitmilly, which carucate had been his wife’s tocher or dowry (St A. Lib. 313). Although the wording is not entirely clear, it would seem that the grant is limited to 20 years, and there is an annual rent of half a merk to be paid to de Hay and his heirs ‘for all service’ (pro omni seruicio). This charter, too, is witnessed by some of Countess Ada’s retinue, such as Hugh Giffard and Alexander of St Martin. A dispute arose between de Hay’s widow, Eva, and his son, David, on the one hand and the priory and hospital of St Andrews on the other, presumably at the end of the 20 years, with the canons and hospital wanting to keep hold of the land. The dispute was finally settled c.1201 × 1205, with Eva and David de Hay quitclaiming all their right to the Pitmilly carucate, but retaining the annual rent of half a merk silver (St A. Lib. 313–14, RRS ii no. 435). The rubric of the royal confirmation identifies the carucate of land in dispute as Falside (Fausid) KBS (RRS ii no. 435, p. 410). In the course of the thirteenth century the place-name Pitmilly becomes restricted to Maolìosa’s Pitmilly, while Eva’s Pitmilly becomes known as Falside. It is Pitmilly in its more restricted sense that the priory of St Andrews confirms to the Monypenny family in heritable feu 1263 × 1304 (St A. Lib. 404–5; see also KBS Introduction). From this charter it appears that the Monypenny family had already been tenants of Pitmilly (excluding Falside) for some time, and the original grant of the lands might be the charter from the now lost Great Register of St Andrews, of which only a summary survives as follows: the charter of the lands of Pitmilly to Richard Monypenny, with freedom to grind his grain at the mill of Peekie SSL without the payment of multures (milling dues). There is no date attached to this charter, but Sibbald states that Thomas prior of St Andrews (1199–1211) granted Maolìosa’s Pitmilly to Richard Monypenny (Monipenie) (1803, 348).
Note also the presence of Pitmilly Meadow # SSL near the burgh of St Andrews, which see for details and discussion.
The name has survived in OS Pathf. Pitmilly House, Pitmilly Burn, Pitmilly Mill and Pitmilly Law. Pitmilly House, now demolished, is simply Pitmilly on OS 1 inch 1st edn, and supplies the above NGR.
This place-name appeared in printed volume 3