Kedlock LOG S NO382190 1 362 125m
(one carucate of land in) Cathelai 1153 x 1165 RRS i no. 138 [= St A. Lib. 195–6; Malcolm IV confirms one carucate of land in Kedlock to Hospital of St Andrews, granted by Simon son of Michael and heirs, to be held by the marches perambulated by Simon and others; this became known as *Prior-Kedlock, q.v.]
Chathelach 1173 x 1178 RRS ii no. 169 [ = St A. Lib. 212]
terra de Katlaht 1172 x 1195 St A. Lib. 306 [rubric]
terram de Katlaht 1172 x 1195 St A. Lib. 306–7 [Prior Walter of St Andrews feus to Alan son of Simon and heirs ‘the land of Kedlock’, with meadows, muirs and common pasture for 24 cattle and 80 sheep, which Simon son of Michael gave the priory, for 7 s. annually]
terra de Kathelach 1172 x 1195 St A. Lib. 325 [rubric]
terram de Katlach 1172 x 1195 St A. Lib. 325 [repeat of St A. Lib. 306–7]
(one carucate of land in) Chatelai 1183 St A. Lib. 58 [papal confirmation to the priory of the Hospital of St Andrews with lands and possessions, including]
De Cathloc 1240 x 1244 Balm. Lib. no. 39 pp. 29–30 [rubric]
in territorio Catholach 1240 x 1244 Balm. Lib. no. 39 [see p. 555, above]
de dominico meo in Catholach 1240 x 1244 Balm. Lib. no. 39 [ditto]
Cathloc 1244 Balm. Lib. no. 40 [Alexander II’s confirmation of ibid. no. 39]
terra in Kathlac c.1250 x 1251 St A. Lib. 292 [rubric]
in territorio de Kathlac c.1250 x 1251 St A. Lib. 292 [see pp. 556–7, above]
terra in Kathlac 1251 St A. Lib. 294 [rubric]
in territorio de Kathlach 1251 St A. Lib. 294 [Alexander III’s confirmation]
(land of) Cathlok 1471 RMS ii no. 1039 [St Andrews Church land; with *Friarflat LOG]
Uvir et Nethire Caithlok 1512 RMS ii no. 3715 [to John Kinnear (Kynnere) of that ilk the lands of Over and Nether Kedlock, which latter is now called Denbrae, with mill, and the Torr (le Tor)]
Ovir Kathlok 1543 Retours (Fife) no. 2 [John Kinnear of that ilk, lands of Kinnear, also Over Kedlock, Nether Kedlock and tower, and lands in LEU]
Nathir Kathlock 1543 Retours (Fife) no. 2 [see preceding]
Uvir Kathillok 1579 Retours (Fife) no. 1455 [Andrew Wood of Largo, annual render ‘of 3 chalders of victuals’ (3 celdrarum victualium) from lands of]
Keithlok et Frastlat 1611 RMS vii no. 464 col. 2 [‘and *Friarflat LOG’; St Andrews Priory lands, now granted with teinds to the duke of Lennox]
Nather Cathlok 1622 RMS viii no. 370
Over Caithlock 1623 RMS viii no. 469 [see LOG Intro.]
Nethir C<aithlock> alias Denbrae 1623 RMS viii no. 469 [see LOG Intro.]
Pryour-Caithlock 1623 RMS viii no. 469 [see *Prior-Kedlock, below]
Nether Catholok 1643 Retours (Fife) no. 648 [Andrew Bruce of Earlshall, Nether Kedlock alias Denbrae (Deanbrae)]
in terris de Kaithlok 1644 Retours (Fife) no. 669 [Kinnear; see *Friarflat LOG]
Nether Kedlock 1674 Retours (Fife) no. 1137 [James Watson of Aithernie SCO, heir of Alexander Watson of Denbrae LOG, in lands of Nether Kedlock called Denbrae; in barony of Kinnear later called barony of Earlshall LEU, q.v.]
Over Catthlock 1696 Retours (Fife) no. 1387 [Agnes Kinnear, heir of Sophie Kinnear of that ilk, in the lands and barony of Kinnear]
? G cat or ? G cath + ? G tulach
The suggestion that the second element of this name is G tulach ‘small hill, mound’ is based on the analogy with Mortlach BNF, G mòr-thulach, ‘big mound’, with (1) regular lenition of t to th caused by the preceding adjective (Morthelach 1063 Aberdeen Registrum i, p. 1; Morthillach 1157 ibid. p. 6; Murthlach c.1450 RMS ii no. 43); and (2) early instability of unstressed -thul-, appearing as -thel- and -thil-, and finally disappearing altogether. Both (1) and (2) can be observed also in the development of Kedlock from its earliest forms, including the d of the modern form, which is a reflex of earlier lenition.
If tulach is the second (in this case generic) element, the question remains as to what the first (specific) element might be. One possibility is G cat (OG catt) ‘cat’, so ‘cat mound, mound or hillock associated with cats’, the cat being the indigenous wild cat. Since, however, tulach may refer to an assembly mound (see PNF 5, Elements Glossary, s.v.), it is possible that ‘cat’ is used here in some kind of figurative, emblematic or totemic way (for animal-names used in this way, see Watson 1926, 16 and fn. 30; and Kettle KTT, PNF 2, which may also contain ‘cat’). A phonological problem with the proposed form cat + tulach is that in Gaelic the combination of t + t would usually block any lenition.
Another possibility for the first element of Kedlock, and one which does not require any special pleading as regards lenition, is G cath ‘battle’, thus ‘battle mound, mound associated with a battle’.
A third, and quite different, analysis of this name is that it contains the G male personal name Cathal (which itself contains G cath ‘battle’) followed by a locational or adjectival ending –ach, thus ‘land belonging to or associated with Cathal or Cathal’s kindred’. The personal name, described as ‘common ‘ by K. H. Jackson (1972, 49), is found also in Balkaithly DNO (PNF 3), and Pitcaithly PER (see Watson 1926, 409). A problem with this analysis is that place-names with this structure are otherwise unknown in Scotland.
All the above is based on the assumption that the name was coined by Gaelic-speakers. The possibility remains, of course, that the name was originally Pictish, and was adapted (and perhaps even re-interpreted) by Gaelic-speakers, which throws much of the above analysis into disarray!
W. F. Skene (Celtic Scotland i, 328, footnote) identifies Achcochlam with Kedlock (which he writes ‘Kathlock’), mentioned in connection with the Norse defeat of the Picts at Dollar in 875 in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba (for which see Anderson 1980, 250). This can safely be rejected, in the light of other early forms of Kedlock, the likelihood being that Achcochlam is Atholl (Anderson 1980, Index; an identification endorsed by Hudson 1998, 154).
Kedlock first appears in the record (1153 × 1165 above) as held by Simon son of Michael. His father may have been Michael of Hanslope (Hamesl’), Buckinghamshire, a member of David I’s entourage in Northamptonshire, who witnesses two of David’s charters in favour of St Andrew’s Priory, Northampton, in the 1120s (David I Chrs. nos. 23, 24). Simon son of Michael first appears as a witness to a charter of David I issued in Clackmannan, probably 1150 × 1153, in favour of the brothers of the Hospital of St Andrews (David I Chrs. no. 207). Simon’s descendants later also held the richer lands of Kinnear, which became their principal baronial seat, and from which they took their name (see Kinnear KLM for further discussion).
Nether Kedlock became known as Denbrae, q.v., while Over Kedlock is what is known today simply as Kedlock.
/ˈkɛdlək/ or /ˈkɛdlɔk/
This place-name appeared in printed volume 4