St Andrews

St Andrews SSL EPS NO513167 2 10m

episcopo Sancti Andree c.950 x 1270 s St A. Lib. 113 [13th c. copy; translated from Gaelic; Fothad son of Bran (Fothath filio Bren) bishop of St Andrew(s)]
Maldunus episcopus Sancti Andree x 1055 St A. Lib. 116 [13th c. copy; translated from Gaelic]
a ttigh an apstail theid ar ceal[334] x 1093 ES i, 448 [‘in the house of the apostle he will die’; late 11th c. Prophecy of Berchan, referring to King Constantine II (900-43) and St Andrews]
basilica Sancti Andree Apostoli 1090s Wade-Evans 1944, 80 [Vita Cadoci; see Anderson 1974, 5]
basilica Beati Andree 1090s Wade-Evans 1944, 82 [Vita Cadoci]
famosum illud domicilium Sancti Apostoli Andree 1090s x 1170 s Vita Godrici, 31 [‘that famous house of St Andrew the Apostle’; see also SSL Introduction, From *Kinrymont to St Andrews]
trans mare in Scotiam ad sanctum Andream c.1090 x c.1090 x 1110 Monenna Life III, 3 (Seanchas Ard Mhacha 10, 432)
ad sanctum Andream c.1090 x c.1090 x 1110 Monenna Life III, 8 (Seanchas Ard Mhacha 10, 440) [(Sexta enim mons Dunpeleder et illic transfretauit mare in Albaniam id est Scotiam ad sanctum Andream)]
ad Sanctum Andream c.1100 Monenna Life, Part III, Ch. 3 (p. 432) [‘across the sea into Scotia to St Andrew(s)’ (trans mare in Scotiam ad sanctum Andream); then back to Britain (in Brittaniam), where Monenna and her companions build a church in honour of St Michael the archangel ‘on the summit of a hill which is now called Edinburgh’ (in cacumine montis, qui modo uocatur Edeneburd)]
ad Sanctum Andream c.1100 Monenna Life, Part III, Ch. 8 (p. 440) [‘and from there (mons Dunpeleder) she crossed the sea to Alba to St Andrew(s)’ (et illic transfretauit mare in Albaniam ad Sanctum Andream)]
presul Sancti Andree 1120 Cambridge Corpus Christi College, MS 371, pp. 8–9 [referring to the bishop of St Andrews; see SSL Introduction, *Kinrymont]
ecclesi<a> beati Andree apostoli 1140 St A. Lib. 122 [‘the church of the blessed apostle Andrew’]
altaris Sancti Andree 1140 St A. Lib. 123 [‘from the seven shares which belong to the altar of St Andrew’ (de vii. portionibus que sunt altaris Sancti Andree)]
burgum apud Sanctum Andream in Scotia 1144 ESC no. 169 [see SSL Introduction The Burgh]
ecclesi<a> Sancti Andree apostoli 1144 [confirmation of Lucius II]
in burgo Sancti Andree 1147 x 1159 St A. Lib. 124
molendina totius parochie ciuitatis Sancti Andree 1187 St A. Lib. 64
urbis Sancti Andree 1202 x 1207 Barrow 1974 no. 4 [o.c.; see also Scoonie SSL, below. Amongst lands misappropriated from the archdeaconate by Walter of Roxburgh, the restored by him, described as ‘the land which lies on the south side of the town of St Andrew(s) between the burns’ (terram que iacet ex australi parte urbis Sancti Andree inter torrentes); the burns are “presumably the Kinness Burn of the south and the ‘Abbey Burn’ on the north” (Barrow 1974, 29)]
Episcopatus Sancti Andreae c.1207 Mappa Mundi 442 [‘the bishopric of St Andrews: Black Canons (i.e. Augustinians) and Culdees’ (Canonici Nigri et Keledei)]
ecclesia Sancte Trinitatis de Sancto Andrea c.1250 St A. Lib. 34
a la cite de Seint Andreu 1296 Stevenson, Documents ii, 30 [‘to the city of St Andrew(s)’, described as having ‘a castle and a good town’ (chastelle et bon ville)]
levesque de Seint Andreu 1296 CDS ii, 205 [‘the bishop of St Andrew(s)’]
apud villam Sancti Andree 1304 CDS iv, 474
apud Sanctum Andream 1304 CDS iv, 474
in ecclesia parochiali Trinitatis Sancti Andree 1369 St A. Cop. p. xvi
Kelrimonech ore saint Andrew 1355 x 1369 Anderson 1980, 287 [French text, from Thomas Gray’s Scalacronica; see Appendix 1, Notes to FAB]
eglis de saint Andrew 1355 x 1369 Anderson 1980, 287 [see preceding entry]
Andrestoun 1399 ER iii, 474 [also at 551 and 571]
in antiqua parochiali ecclesia ciuitatis Sancti Andree 1411 St A. Lib. 21
the kirk of Andirstoun 1412 Fraser, Melville iii no. 25
infra civitatem Sancti Andree 1413 St A. Lib. 15 [see St Leonards]
Sanct Androis c.1420 Chron. Wyntoun vol. 4, 186 [King Constantine was a Culdee in St Andrews, ‘in Sanct Androis a kylde’]
bischop of Sancte Androwis town c.1420 Chron. Wyntoun vol. 4, 377
at Sanctandrowis 1434 St A. Lib. 423
at Sanctandrowis 1435 St A. Cop. no.69
(canons of) Sancti Andree de Reymonth 1440s Scotichron. Bk. 1, ch. 6 (vol. 1, 14) [see Kilrymont SSL]
Sanct Androwis 1471 x 1478 Wallace ii, 14
in Sanctandrois 1518 Fife Ct. Bk. 92
S<anct> Andre sive Andreapolis c. 1580 Geddy
(parish of) Sanctandrois 1592 APS iii p. 549
(parish of) Sanctandros 1621 APS iv p. 682
S. Androes 1632 Whyte Almanac [a fair on Lammas (Lambmes) day]
Saint Andrewis 1636 x 1652 Gordon MS 46 [also St Andrewis Hope for St Andrews Bay]
St Andrews 1636 x 1652 Gordon MS 47
St Androus 1650 Lamont’s Diary 25
St. Andrewes 1654 Blaeu (Pont) East Fife
Sainct Andrews 1654 Blaeu (Gordon) Fife
St. Andrews 1725 Moll [also St. Andrews Bay]
St. Andrews 1753 Roy sheet 19, 5
St. Andrews 1775 Ainslie/Fife

Sc sanct + pn Andrew

‘St Andrew’s (church, place, burgh etc.)’. The name derived originally from the important church dedicated to the apostle St Andrew and believed at an early date to house relics of that saint (see SSL Introduction, From *Kinrymont to St Andrews).

The original name of the settlement here was *Kinrymont, first mentioned in 747 (see SSL Introduction, *Kinrymont, and under Kylrymont SSL, above). The name St Andrews made the transition from a purely church context, meaning ‘the church of St Andrew’, to that of a secular settlement through the development of the ecclesiastical burgh in the 1140s. The very first reference to this burgh in 1144 identifies it as ‘the burgh at St Andrew’ (burgum apud Sanctum Andream) (ESC no. 169), where ‘St Andrew’ could be short-hand for ‘the church of St Andrew’, or could be seen as indicating the physical presence of the saint himself through that of his corporeal relics. Within a few years the burgh is referred to using a possessive genitive construction, ‘the burgh of St Andrew’ (burgo Sancti Andree) (e.g. 1147 × 1159 St A. Lib. 124). However, here, the transition is still not complete, as this could be translated ‘the burgh under the protection of or dedicated to St Andrew’. In these early occurrences of the name, it is in fact very difficult to separate the locational from the dedicatory. This is particularly true of the title ‘bishop of St Andrew’, which is first found in a contemporary text in 1120, in the phrase presul Sancti Andree (see early forms). The earlier references to the bishop of St Andrews, noted above in the early forms, occur in the St Serf material in the St A. Lib., and therefore represent a translation from Gaelic into Latin done in the later twelfth or thirteenth century. We do not know what term the original Gaelic text used.

The genitival construction with burgh, city, town or church either explicit or implicit, developed as the most common form of the name, and this is reflected in its earliest recorded forms in Scots. The earliest of all explicitly add toun (Andrestoun 1399 or Andirstoun 1412), but soon the generic is left implicit and the form Sanctandrowis or similar becomes the standard (from 1434 onwards).

OS Pathf. St Andrews Bay is St Andrewis Hope on Gordon MS 46 (1636 × 1652).

The Sc form is St Ondries, which can still be heard locally (/sentˈɔndrɪz/): the Fife pronunciation of ‘Andrew’ is /ˈɔndrɪ/. More common nowadays, however, is /sentˈandruz/, /sentˈanruz/ or /senˈanruz/. The vowel in the first syllable can also be schwa /ə/.

This place-name appeared in printed volume 3