Kilconquhar

Kilconquhar KCQ PS NO485020 1 374 20m

Cuthb<er>to capellano de Kilconcat 1165 x 1169 St A. Lib. 175 [‘Cuthbert chaplain of Kilconquhar’]
(church of) Kilcuncat 1202 NAS RH6/16 [o.c.; see KCQ Introduction]
(lands of) Kilcuncat 1202 NAS RH6/16 [o.c.]
(church of) Kilconkath 1202 N. Berwick Cart. no. 6 [rubric]
(church of) Kilkonkath 1202 N. Berwick Cart. no. 6 [Earl Duncan grants the church of Kilconquhar with its land, teinds etc. to the nuns of North Berwick]
Willelmo persona de Kilconwat c.1204 Barrow 1974 no. 2 [w; ‘parson’]
Kilcuncath 1207 CPL i 30 [one of places belonging to bishop of St Andrews, taken into papal protection]
Duncano filio Ade de Kilcu<n>kath x 1214 St A. Lib. 381 [w. ‘Duncan son of Adam of Kilconquhar’]
Kilconkath 1214 x 1230 N. Berwick Cart. no. 7 [o.c.]
(church and churchland of) Kil’conkath 1212 x 1214 RRS ii no. 516 [o.c.; = N. Berwick Cart. no. 9 (with facsimile); the stroke through the l might indicate an abbreviation? William I confirms earls of Fife’s grants to North Berwick nuns]
Duncano de Kilkuncwauch’ c.1225 St A. Lib. 272
(church of) Kilkunekath (with chapel) c.1250 St A. Lib. 33
(church of) Kilconcath’ (with chapel) c.1250 Dunf. Reg. no. 313
(church of Kilconcar 1266 N. Berwick Cart. no. 19 [rubric]
(lord of) Kylconchat’ 1266 N. Berwick Cart. no. 19 [x 3]
(church of) Kylkonqwhar 1266 N. Berwick Cart. no. 20 [rubric]
(lord of) Kylconchat’ 1266 N. Berwick Cart. no. 20 [x 4, once without final flourish (abbreviation mark?)]
(Adam of) Kylleconnech c.1266 x 1270 Barrow 1971 no. 14
? Kyncroach 1275 Bagimond’s Roll, p. 37
(church of) Kilconcath’ 1293 N. Berwick Cart. no. 24
(chaplain of the parish of) Kilconcat’ 1295 NLS 34.6.24, p. 217 [17th c. copy; see discussion under Grange ELI, above]
ecclesie parochialis de Kilconquhar 1463 N. Berwick Cart. no. 29
Kylconchare 1452 x 1480 RMS ii no. 1444 [St Andrews Church land]
(vicar of) Kylconquhar 1482 RMS ii no. 1528 [William Wawane][181]
Culcunquhar 1545 x 1555 N. Berwick Cart. p. xxiii [‘set to Jhone Betoun (John Beaton) the teynd chaiwis (sheaves) of Bacarras (Balcarres KCQ), for the sowm of xiij lib. vj s. viij d. And for the teynd of the peis and beynis (peas and beans) of Culcunquhar the sovm of xx s.’]
Cilcunquhar 1545 x 1555 N. Berwick Cart. p. xxiv
(at) Kinquonquhair 1556 RMS iv no. 1173
Kynnunquhar c.1560 s Assumption, 77
Kilecu(n)quharrie 1593 RMS v no. 2273 [St Andrews Church land]
terris de Kilconquhair 1601 Retours (Fife) no. 94
Kinrocher 1632 Whyte Almanac [see KCQ Introduction]
Killconqhuar 1642 Gordon MS Fife
Kinnocher 1652 Lamont’s Diary 49
Killconquhair 1654 Blaeu (Gordon) Fife
Keanwcher L<och> 1654 Blaeu (Gordon) Fife
Kinocher 1654 Blaeu (Gordon) Fife [‘Lonhead alias Kinocher’ = site of Kilconquhar House]
Carstares (of) Keinnocher 1654 Blaeu Atlas [Latin text accompanying maps, by Robert Gordon]
Kylconquyher 1654 Lamont’s Diary 75
Kinconquer 1753 Roy sheet 18, 1
Kiconquar P<aris>h 1775 Ainslie/Fife [also Loan Head for Kilconquhar House]
Kilconquhar 1775 Ainslie/Fife
Kilconquhar 1855 OS 6 inch 1st edn

G cill + pn Dúnchad or Conchad

‘Church of (St) Dúnchad (Duncan) or Conchad’. If the former, then it is the same name, and probably the same saint, as appears in a different form in Kilduncan KBS, q.v., the saint in question probably being Dúnchad, eleventh abbot of Iona. His cult may have been of particular importance in Pictland because it was during his abbacy in the early eighth century that the long-standing isolation of Iona on the question of the date of Easter came to an end, when the community adopted the ‘Roman’ date of Easter (AU s.a. 716; Bede HE v, 22; FO, 136, for 25 May).[182] At a time when Naitan or Nechtan, king of the Picts, was looking towards Northumbria and the international Church for models of Church practice, the success of the abbot of Iona in bringing his monks into the international fold must have been warmly welcomed in Pictland. In 717 Dúnchad died, and it is likely that his cult flourished in Pictland shortly afterwards as a result of his triumph. For further discussion of his cult in Fife see Taylor 1996, especially the Appendix ‘cill-names in Fife’.

The initial consonant of the second element is consistently written c or k, which, if the name involved is indeed Dúnchad,[183] requires some explanation. It would then represent a lenited d, which in OIr was /ð/. However, in modern Scottish Gaelic (before back vowels) lenited d has become the voiced velar fricative /F/, and it has to be assumed that this process was already underway in eastern Scottish Gaelic by the twelfth century,[184] and that it was this sound which is being represented by c/k. A parallel for this can be found in the representation of *Domnall mac Dhonnnchada (later Domhnall mac Dhonnchadha), Donald III (1093–7) son of Duncan I (1034–40), as ‘Douenald filius Conchat Reg<is>’ (St A. Lib. 115). This Latin text is a translation from a now lost Gaelic original (for more on which see Taylor 2007), and it is only in this Gaelic context that the form Conchat can be understood. A similar development is seen also in Pitconochie DFL (PNF 1), which contains a hypocoristic form of Donnchad (Donnchadh).

Alternatively the second element is the personal name Conchad, which occurs twice in AU, both in an Irish context, but there is no known saint of this name.

The forms on Gordon MS (and Blaeu (Gordon) Fife) and Lamont’s Diary in 1652 show that the modern, local pronunciation (for which see below) was already almost fully developed by this time. However, Gordon writes the name of the church much more conservatively, obviously influenced by the written tradition. It is even possible that by the early modern period the two names existed side by side in the spoken language as they do today, but used more discriminately, with the older form used to refer to the church (and the parish), while the later form was used to refer to the settlement and the loch. A further point of interest regarding these Gordon maps is that, while Gordon MS Fife refers to the settlement at the north-west corner of Kilconquhar Loch as Lonheid, Blaeu (Gordon) Fife adds after Lonhead (note the English spelling) ‘alias Kinocher’. This alias is not derived from James Gordon’s manuscript, but may have been added under the influence of James’s father, Robert Gordon of Straloch who wrote Nova Fifae Descriptio, published to accompany the maps in Blaeu’s Atlas, where among the lesser nobles of Fife is listed ‘Carstares Keinnocher’. Both settlement and loch are absent from Blaeu (Pont) East Fife.

*Loanhead ‘head or end of a loan or cattle-track’ has not survived, although it was clearly an important name in the early modern period, as an alias for the settlement of Kilconquhar (Blaeu (Gordon) Fife, see preceding paragraph) and (as Loan Head) on Ainslie/Fife (1775) as the name of what later became known as Kilconquhar House of Kilconquhar Castle.

/kɪˈnʌxər/ is the traditional local pronunciation, with a variant /kɪˈnjuxər/, reflected in the spelling of the village pub the Kinneuchar Inn. However, /kɪlˈkɔnkər/ or /kɪlˈkɔŋk&#

This place-name appeared in printed volume 3